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The Chemical Educator

ISSN: 1430-4171 (electronic version)

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Abstract Volume 7 Issue 6 (2002) pp 349-353

Chemical Equilibrium, Free Energy, and Entropy of Mixing

Mauricio Gomes Constantino* and Gil Valdo José da Silva

Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto SP, Brazil,
Received June 3, 2002. Accepted August 13, 2002

Published online: 4 October 2002

Abstract. In this paper we describe an approach for teaching the relation between chemical equilibrium and free energy that is, according to our experience, very efficient and enlightening. This approach has a strong visual appeal and can be used at different levels, from simple presentation of the results as graphs of free energy versus reaction mixture composition, up to full derivation of formulas to find the equations of the curves.

Key Words:  In the Classroom; physical chemistry, thermodynamics

(*) Corresponding author. (E-mail:

Article in PDF format (563 KB) HTML format

Issue date: December 1, 2002

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