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The Chemical Educator

ISSN: 1430-4171 (electronic version)

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Abstract Volume 9 Issue 2 (2004) pp 102-104

A Low-Cost Pump Assembly for the Spectrophotometric Detection of the Color Change of an Indicator

Ramee Indralingam,* Namika Nakagawa, and William R. Furlong

Chemistry Department, Stetson University, DeLand, FL 32723,
Received December 13, 2003. Accepted March 2, 2004.

Published online: 16 March 2004

Abstract. A large number of students experience difficulty detecting the endpoint of tritrations using some visual indicators due to the subtle color change of the indicator. We have devised an inexpensive and simple apparatus using a miniature pump, vinyl tubing, and a test tube to monitor the course of the titration spectrophotometrically using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer. It allows the determination of the equivalence point accurately and removes the error caused by the subjective nature of the visual endpoint. Sample results obtained by students, which demonstrate the successful inclusion of the apparatus in the analytical chemistry laboratory, are given.

Key Words: Laboratories and Demonstrations; analytical chemistry; titrations; spectrophotometry

(*) Corresponding author. (E-mail:

Article in PDF format (219 KB) HTML format

Supporting Materials:


Supporting Materials:

A student laboratory handout and detailed instructor notes are provided in a Zipped pdf file (153 KB).

Issue date: April 1, 2004

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