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The Chemical Educator

ISSN: 1430-4171 (electronic version)

Table of Contents

Abstract Volume 18 (2013) pp 263-268
DOI 10.1007/s00897132507

Cyclic Voltammetry of Cytochrome c as an Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise

Kevin R. Hoke* and Madison R. Chandler

Department of Chemistry, Berry College, 2277 Martha Berry Highway NW, Mount Berry, GA 30149,
Received May 24, 2013. Accepted August 7, 2013.

Published: 23 September 2013

Abstract. A practical and effective approach for incorporating direct electrochemical analysis of a small redox-active protein, cytochrome c, into an upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described. This exercise requires students to purify a sample of cytochrome c known to contain a redox-active impurity as well as to prepare gold electrodes with a self-assembled monolayer to interact with the protein. The students directly monitor electron exchange between the electrode and the protein sample, adapting a simple dialysis device to substantially reduce the amount of protein solution required for the voltammetry. The students analyze the voltammetric data to measure reduction potentials and other electrochemical characteristics for the system.

Key Words: Laboratories and Demonstrations; bioinorganic chemistry; cytochrome c; direct protein electrochemistry; cyclic voltammetry; dialysis membrane

(*) Corresponding author. (E-mail:

Article in PDF format (186 KB) HTML format

Supporting Materials:

A student laboratory handout is provided as a Microsoft Word document. An instructor’s note with more detailed experimental guidelines and photographs of the experimental setup is also provided (2.14 MB).

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