The Chemical Educator, Vol. 8, No.4, Media Reviews, © 2003 The Chemical Educator

Media Review

Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics (Web Site, http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lane/rvls.html). By David Lane, David Scott, Jan Benway, Joan Lu, Zhihua Tang, Al Shea , Mickey Quinones, Keith Baggerly, Joe Austin, Michael Swartz, and Richard Swartz.

An Online Statistics Resource: Is There a Normal Distribution for Chemists?

As a chemist in any subdiscipline, one will need to use statistics at some point for data analysis, but remembering the formulae used in the determination of the appropriate distribution (normal, binomial, t, f, or chi-square) can be difficult. Also, instructors in a general chemistry, quantitative analysis, or instrumental analysis course may find it essential to be able to add new online references and resources to the material currently presented in the classroom. There is a Web page that has all this information, and more, called the Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics[1]. Within this online source are a wide variety of resources including an online text, free statistical analysis tools, instructional demos, as well as simulations and demonstrations for just about any analysis.

First, HyperStat Online [2]is an online textbook that can be used in a basic statistics class or can be used as an external reference. The topics included are for the analysis of univariate and bivariate data sets, probability, normal and sampling distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing and standard errors, ANOVA analyses, power analysis, chi-square ,and others. In exploring the univariate page, a listing of subtopics is given with links to subjects, such as mean, median, standard deviation, and others [3]. In viewing the description of mean, for example, there is a simple definition and then a mathematical formula [4].

If the statistical terms used to describe the subtopics are unfamiliar, they are linked to a separate definition page; this is done for summation notation, population, sample, sample size, central tendency, skewed, median, normal distribution, and sample fluctuations. Also included is a link to an interactive demonstration that compares median and mean to show why one would report one or both of these for a particular data set [5].

Continuing on, mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean are explained in great detail. The online setup can be easily followed when learning or reviewing any of these topics. To check understanding of the topics, problem sets with answers are available for all chapters [6]. There are also links to instructional demos of various topics within the online text [7]. These all are viable options for in-class or out-of-class explanations on topics within the statistics textbook, but most are probably not suitable for chemistry applications. From the main page link, case studies are offered to show examples of data analysis, but again, there are not any specific chemical applications. Also available are links to other online textbooks if this reference is not to your liking, and all tend to be suitable resources.

Other links included are to free statistical analysis tools located externally from the main page [8]. These run under Macintosh, Windows, and Unix operating systems, typically as Java applets. All offer possible solutions, dependent on your applications. In particular, WebStat offers one of the better options for basic analytical work (regressions, t tests, etc.) and is currently free [9], WebStat also has functionality with Microsoft Excel files. All software listed appears to be adequate for most simple analyses and most is relatively low cost or free.

This collection of statistics links is worthwhile for chemists to use as a reference to review material, but is limited in chemical applications. Also, beware: although there are quite a few links to basic information suited to chemists, if using a modem connection these pages might take some time to load as they tend to have quite a few images. Note that occasionally there are broken links to external pages. Lane will update these if you contact him.

References and Notes

1.       http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lane/rvls.html (accessed July 2003).

2.       http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/index.html (accessed July 2003).

3.       http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/desc_univ.html (accessed July 2003).

4.       http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A15885.html (accessed July 2003).

5.       http://www.ruf.rice.edu/%7Elane/stat_sim/descriptive/index.html (accessed July 2003).

6.       http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/questions/index.html (accessed July 2003).

7.       http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/Instructional_Demos.html (accessed July 2003).

8.       http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/Statistical_analyses.html (accessed July 2003).

9.       http://www.webstatsoftware.com (accessed July 2003).

Thomas M. Spudich

Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, School of Science,

Erie, PA 16563, tms23@psu.edu

S1430-4171(03)04706-3, 10.1333/s00897030706a

From Coello to Inorganic Chemistry: A Lifetime of Reactions. By Fred Basolo.Profiles in Inorganic Chemistry, John P. Fackler, Jr., Series Editor; Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow, 2002. Illustrations. xxii + 245 pp.; 15.6 ´ 23.4 cm.; \$59.95 (hardbound); ISBN 0-306-46774-7.

In the course of writing a review article [1], Jeffrey I. Seeman, then Senior Scientist and Project Leader at the Philip Morris Research Center, Richmond, VA and now a consultant, producer of videos on science and health, and Chairman Elect of the American Chemical Society Division of the History of Chemistry, conceived the idea of a book on the history of organic chemistry to be documented by prominent organic chemists’ discussions of their role in its development. By 1986 the American Chemical Society Books Department accepted what had evolved into a series of autobiographical volumes. In April, 1990 the first two volumes of a projected 22-volume series, Profiles, Pathways, and Dreams: Autobiographies of Eminent Chemists, were published [2]. The last published volume, the twentieth, appeared in 1998 [3].

Organic chemistry flourished during both the latter half of the 19th century as well as all of the 20th century. However, after the pioneering work of Alfred Werner and Sophus Mads Jørgensen, its older sister field, inorganic chemistry, languished in the doldrums until World War II, when what Ronald S. Nyholm called the “Renaissance of Inorganic Chemistry” took place [4]. According to John P. Fackler, Jr., Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Texas A&M University,

The war effort required an understanding of the chemistry of uranium and the synthetic actinide elements that were essential to the production of the atom bomb. There was also a need for catalysts to produce rayon, nylon, synthetic rubber, and other new materials for the war effort. As a result, many gifted chemists applied their talents to inorganic chemistry. Profiles in Inorganic Chemistry [the new and long overdue series that fulfills the role for Inorganikers that Seeman’s series did for Organikers] explores the roles of some of the key contributors played in the renaissance and development of the field (p ix).

In a review of the last volume in the organic Profiles series to appear, we wrote,

We are all fortunate that Seeman began his series as soon as he did, for nine of his autobiographees—Derek H. R. Barton, Arthur J. Birch, Melvin Calvin, Egbert Havinga, Michael J. S. Dewar, Herman Mark, Tetsue Nozoe, Vladimir Prelog, and William S. Johnson—have already died during the publication of the series to date [3b].

Since that time Profiles authors Donald J. Cram and Raymond U. Lemieux have passed away, increasing the number of the deceased to eleven. Similarly, many of the early leaders in the inorganic renaissance such as John C. Bailar, Jr., Ludwig F. Audrieth, Warren C. Johnson, W. Conard Fernelius, Raymond E. Kirk, and Harold S. Booth, the founders of the field’s journal in book format, Inorganic Syntheses, the first volume of which appeared in 1939, are no longer with us; therefore, Fackler’s new series has begun none too soon.

Although Fred Basolo (Figure 1) has dedicated his autobiography, the first volume in Fackler’s series, “In Loving Memory of My Beloved Wife, Mary and My Parents, Giovanni and Catherina Basolo,” he devotes considerable space to his mentors, especially John Bailar (1904–1991). Initially reluctant to write an autobiography, Basolo soon warmed to the task:

As I kept writing, I became more and more interested in the many things in my life that I had forgotten….It almost made me feel that I was again living those years of my life. Another reason for deciding to write my autobiography is to leave it for our children so that they can enjoy reading about the lives of their parents. Furtherfore, at age 81 and handicapped, I needed something to do that interested me and kept me busy (pp xi–xii).

As Wordsworth observed, “The Child is father of the Man.” In Chapter 1, “From Coello to Inorganic Coordination Chemistry” (32 pp.), Basolo describes his early years in considerable detail, for they

were, in my opinion, the foundation that made me an honest, hard working, dependable, and creditable person. Regardless of early hardships, I have always considered my early childhood to have been the most enjoyable and most instructive period of my life (p 3).

Figure 1. Fred Basolo, frontispiece of the book (Courtesy, Fred Basolo).

The youngest of three children, Fred (Alfredo on his birth certificate) was born on February 11, 1920 to poor Italian immigrant parents, “my two role models for life in general,” in the small coal mining village of Coello, Illinois, about 25 miles north of Carbondale. Most of the miners were immigrants from the Piedmont region of northern Italy and spoke the “Piemontese” peasant dialect, which was spoken in the Basolo home (Until he began to attend school, Fred understood but spoke little English). Conditions were primitive (no central heating or plumbing), and his experiences watching his mother in the family kitchen made cooking Italian dishes one of his favorite hobbies.

The Great Depression began when Fred was about ten. Because he was too young to work, unlike his siblings, he attended a four-room elementary school in Coello and then Christopher Community High School (He walked the two miles in all kinds of weather). His first contact with chemistry (he did not even know the meaning of the word) was in high school, where his “beautiful young blond” teacher told the class that she hated the subject and did not know much about it and that they were going to be largely on their own. Contrary to the common experience of successful chemists, who usually ascribe their success to the motivation provided by an enthusiastic high school teacher, Fred found that her

approach to teaching chemistry gave me the freedom to concentrate on what interested me in the textbook and, even more so, to get very excited about the laboratory experiments (p 7).

With the help of a welfare program for college students (\$25 per month as payment for work on campus) Fred enrolled at Southern Illinois Normal School (SIN, now Southern Illinois University, from which he was to receive an honorary doctorate in 1984), where he became a chemistry major and earned his B.Ed. degree in 1940. He was the only person from Coello going to college and today is still the only Ph.D. from there. His parents expected him to return home to assume the respectable position of a high school teacher, but Professor James Neckers advised him to go to graduate school (Fred’s first reaction was, “What is graduate school?”).

A teaching assistantship (\$60 per month) enabled Fred to enter the University of Illinois, where he chose as his mentor John C. Bailar, “a professor knowledgeable in organic chemistry doing work in inorganic chemistry which, to me, seemed a win-win situation” (p 14). A good judge of character, Fred thought that Bailar “seemed to be a caring person, with a good understanding of people and their needs” (p 14), qualities for which Fred himself became legendary. His choice was “one of the very best decisions I have ever made” (p 14), and Bailar became his second role model after his parents. Bailar was the father of American coordination chemistry [5], who, “more than any other single person, was responsible for the advancement of coordination chemistry in this country” [6]. As his fourth and most eminent doctoral student, Fred continued Bailar’s work with his own students and after Bailar’s death in 1991 inherited his position as the “grand old man of coordination chemistry in the United States.”

In his graduate course in coordination chemistry Bailar lectured on the history of the subject, and Fred condensed Bailar’s lecture into a 50-minute lecture for his freshman class to illustrate how science advances. He presented this lecture, which he describes here, every year for four decades to his students and worldwide to universities and high schools [7]. Bailar and his students had worked with cobalt(III) complexes, and he wished to extend this research to complexes of platinum(II) and (IV). Basolo discusses his dissertation research—preparation of cis-[PtCl2{NH2CH2CH2NH2}2]Cl2, an optically active compound that would allow him to study the stereochemical changes that occur during ligand substitution reactions. His second publication [8], embodying this research, elicited little interest until more than two decades later Barnett Rosenberg serendipitously discovered the related antitumor activity of cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2] (cisplatin), still one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs [9, 10].

Bailar suggested that Basolo finish his work in three years so that he would not be drafted and have to return to receive his degree. Having received his M.S. degree in 1942, Basolo earned his Ph.D. degree in 1943 at age 23. He spent the next three years working on government classified research at Rohm & Haas Co. in Bridesburg, a Philadelphia suburb. His browsing in the R & H library aroused his interest in kinetics and reaction mechanisms and helped shape the course of his future career in chemistry.

In Chapter 2, “Mary, the Children, and Me” (36 pp.), Basolo discusses his extremely happy family life with Mary Nutely, whom he met at SIN and whom he married on June 14, 1947 in “a high-spirited Irish–Italian celebration” during his first year as an instructor at Northwestern University (NU) in Evanston, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. With Mary, whom he calls “the very best mother and the very best wife,” he had three daughters and a son, who, in turn, presented the Basolos with 11 grandchildren. With considerable humor Fred also describes his adventures with Mary and their children on his two sabbatical leaves and the eminent chemists whom he met and with whom he worked.

A Guggenheim fellowship enabled the Basolo family to spend a year (1954–55) in Copenhagen, where he worked in the laboratory of Jannik Bjerrum [11], whose dissertation popularized the term ligand [12]. The Basolos also visited other European countries, including Italy, where they visited Fred’s relatives. An avid golfer, Fred took the opportunity of their time in Scotland to play at the Royal and Ancient Golf Course in St. Andrews, where the game originated. The Basolos spent Fred’s second sabbatical year (He was a Senior NSF Fellow, 1961–62) at Vincenzo Caglioti’s institute at the Università di Roma.

At NU Basolo rose through the ranks—Instructor (1946–50), Assistant Professor (1950-55), Associate Professor (1955–58), Professor (1958–79), and Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry (1980–1990). In this chapter he also describes his two books, written partially during his first and second sabbaticals, respectively. The first, Mechanisms of Inorganic Reactions, coauthored with his NU colleague Ralph G. Pearson of hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) fame, introduced crystal field theory to chemists and showed its importance in explaining properties of coordination compounds as well as the kinetics and mechanisms of redox and ligand substitution reactions of metal complexes [13]. This critically acclaimed monograph has been compared to Alfred Werner’s Neuere Anschauungen auf dem Gebiete der anorganischen Chemie [14]. Basolo’s second book, Coordination Chemistry, a popular supplementary paperback textbook coauthored with former student Ronald C. Johnson, was translated into seven languages [15].

In Chapter 3, “Faculty Position at Northwestern University (NU)” (48 pp., the longest chapter), Basolo reviews the history and faculty of the NU Chemistry Department, his teaching and research activities, his collaboration with physical chemist Ralph Pearson (whom he “seduced” into becoming a physical inorganic chemist) and various students, the informal Saturday morning Basolo-Ibers-Pearson (BIP) group, and his chairmanship of the department (1969–72).

Fred devotes 32 pages to technical discussions of his research, which, he suggests, nonscientists may skip. However, nonscientist readers will enjoy the fascinating and amusing anecdotes that are interspersed among the chemical details. Among the topics that Fred discusses are ligand substitution reactions of octahedral cobalt(III) complexes, acid hydrolysis or aquation of cobalt(III) and chromium(III) metal–ammine complexes, base hydrolysis of metal–ammine complexes, linkage isomers (He and student John L. Burmeister were the first to prepare isomers of the type M–NCS and M–SCN), ligand substitution reactions of Pt(II) square-planar complexes, synthetic oxygen carriers, and organometallic chemistry, including the indenyl kinetic effect. After German chemist Walter Hieber, “the father of carbonyl chemistry,” told Basolo, in response to his question about the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and reactions of these compounds, “We do chemistry in my laboratory, not the philosophy of chemistry” (p 101), Fred realized that this was a neglected field that he and his students could explore.

Basolo treats in great detail his work with Pearson and students on the base hydrolysis of Co(III) complexes, which they found to proceed by a SN1CB (substitution, nucleophilic, unimolecular, conjugate base) mechanism. Christopher K. Ingold, the Nobel-caliber “high priest of organic mechanisms,” and Sir Ronald S. Nyholm claimed that this view was incorrect and published papers claiming that the correct mechanism was SN2 (substitution, nucleophilic, bimolecular). In Basolo’s words,

Had our polemic with Ingold and Nyholm, two of the giants of chemistry, not turned out in our favor, we may not have gotten tenure and our department may not now rank among the top four in inorganic chemistry in the U.S. We were very fortunate to have this exchange focus so much favorable attention on our department just at the time when inorganic chemistry in the U.S. was beginning to achieve the importance it now has (pp 90–91).

Although we are familiar with many of the persons discussed in the book, we were pleasantly surprised on a number of occasions to learn some interesting fact or story about some of them of which we were previously unaware. As a case in point, Andy Wojcicki and Harry B. Gray coped with the problem of handling toxic metal carbonyls by keeping a canary named Linus, supposedly more sensitive to fumes than humans, in a cage in their poorly ventilated laboratory. After Linus died, they replaced him with a parakeet named Torpedo, who pecked Harry, infecting him with psittacosis (parrot fever), from which he suffered for several years.

In Chapter 4, “Other Activities” (36 pp.), Basolo relates what he considers the most important of his professional activities. For each of the organizations or funding agencies in which he participated he first gives a history and background before proceeding to discuss his own work, including his failures as well as successes. Among his activities for the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), to which he was elected in 1979, he considers his participation in the book, Opportunities in Chemistry, colloquially known as the “Pimentel Report.”

During the first of his speaking tours for the American Chemical Society, Fred found that “At each stop, my last slide would be forgotten in the projector and, as a result, my talks became shorter and shorter!” (p 126), an experience to which most of us can personally relate. In 1970 he was elected Chairman of the ACS Division of Inorganic Chemistry. Although he had not been very active in the ACS and consequently thought that he stood little chance of being elected President, he agreed to having his name proposed as a petition candidate to oppose the other two candidates loyal to the ACS establishment, who would receive all the establishment votes. To his great surprise he was elected President without any electioneering on his part in 1983.

After describing his “on-the-job learning as President-elect,” Fred recounts his presidential activities. For example, in his attempts to combat chemophobia he agreed to discuss environmental problems with newspaper reporters, radio talk show hosts, and television anchor persons but only if he was given equal time to present the beneficial aspects of chemicals. He also made these views known to congressmen and congressional committees. In 1992 he received the ACS George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education, and in 2001 he was awarded the Priestley Medal, the ACS’s highest honor [16, 17].

Not all Basolo’s presidential efforts bore fruit:

I began my crusade to establish only one annual meeting per year, terminating all committees no longer needed, and changing the by-laws to put an upper limit (10 or 15 years) of time that a member could serve on national committees…. I failed miserably with these three goals (p 132).

He concluded that

My year as President of the ACS was a rewarding experience for me. I learned that one cannot succeed in making major changes in an organization deeply entrenched in its policies. However,…some of what was done made significant contributions to chemistry (p 136).

In the remainder of the chapter Basolo details his work with the Gordon Research Conferences, International Conferences on Coordination Chemistry (ICCC), ACS Petroleum Research Fund Advisory Board, and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

When one of us (GBK) studied Italian more than half a century ago, he learned a useful bon mot (If we can mix languages), with which Basolo is certainly familiar: “Paese che vai, usanza che trova,” usually translated as “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” In Chapter 5, “Countries and Chemists Visited” (29 pp,), Basolo sketches in considerable detail his adventures, meetings with colleagues, and encounters with unusual foods and customs in the most interesting of the 40 foreign countries to which he traveled. His zest for life and remembrance of the humble circumstances of his childhood made him take great delight in each new experience during his peregrinations.

Fred regarded Italy as a second home and traveled there “more times than I can recall.” He lectured there in his “bad, but amusing Italian.” In 1981 he was elected an honorary member of the Società Chimica Italiana, and he received honorary doctorates from the Università di Torino (1987), Università di Padova (1991), and Università di Palermo (1997). He also was awarded three Italian medals. He is proudest, however, of his election in 1987 to the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Italy’s national academy of science), founded four centuries ago—in 1603—as the world’s oldest scientific society (Galileo was admitted in 1611) [18]. He was one of only ten foreign members, five of whom are Nobel laureates.

Basolo made seven trips to China, where he met with Vice-Premier Fang-Yi (the number three governmental official), dined on such delicacies as snake soup, drank mao-ti, “which had an odor of kerosene” (p 163), and received an honorary doctorate and a medal. Because of his frequent visits one of the professors at Fudan University told him, “Basolo, you are the Marco Polo of chemistry to China” (p 167). Fred also discusses his sojourns in Germany, Australia, and Kuwait (His portrait in a Kuwaiti robe and head scarf appears on p 180).

In Chapter 6, “Foreign Guests Hosted” (26 pp.), Basolo treats us to 32 thumbnail sketches arranged alphabetically by country and ranging in length from a single paragraph (Christian Klixbüll Jørgensen) to three pages (Francis P. Dwyer). Some of these persons are also discussed elsewhere in the book.

In Chapter 7, “Emeritus Professor” (13 pp., the shortest chapter), Basolo tells of what are sometimes euphemistically referred to as “the golden years,” a time marked by health problems for many of us, the Basolos included. Looking forward to retirement, the Basolos moved into a smaller house, and Fred stopped taking graduate students in 1987 “because I felt one’s mentor should be available for several years after his students have received their Ph.D.” (p 211).

On August 17–18, 1990 a large celebration of Fred’s 70th birthday and his retirement, financially supported by 16 corporations and societies and attended by almost all of his Ph.D. students and postdocs, took place (Figure2). Sufficient unused funds were left so that his students and postdocs created an endowment to establish an annual Basolo medal and lecture, beginning in 1991. Governor James Thompson proclaimed August 18, 1990 to be “Fred Basolo Day in the State of Illinois.”

Figure 2. George B. Kauffman and Laurie M. Kauffman wearing the T-shirts with Fred Basolo’s 70th birthday logo (photograph by Randy Vaughn-Dotta).

Unfortunately, in 1991 Mary had an emergency quadruple heart bypass, after which she began to suffer from Alzheimer’s Disease. One morning, while driving her to the day-care center, Fred fell asleep at the wheel, probably because of a combination of some new medications and tiredness, and the car hit a tree. Mary succumbed to her injuries and died on February 5, 1997. Five surgeries on Fred’s back damaged the nerves from his brain to his legs; he is now unable to walk without two canes and he uses a scooter to get around in the NU Chemistry Building. Despite pain and shortness of breath, he still comes to his office in the morning, has lunch with his faculty colleagues, and leaves in the early afternoon.

Always aware and proud of his roots, Fred states:

I can truthfully say that I marvel at what has happened to me during my life. Not in my wildest dreams could I have expected when growing up in the little mining village of Coello that, some day, I would become a successful chemist (p 221).

He concludes his first-person saga of triumph and tragedy with the positive outlook on life expressed by his wife Mary: “Happiness Always” (p 221).

In addition to the numerous structural formulas, equations, and reaction schemes in the sections dealing with chemistry, Basolo’s book features 180 illustrations, mostly formal portraits and informal snapshots of him, his colleagues, and his family members, the captions for many of which include extensive annotated descriptions. Like his mentor John Bailar, Fred educated several generations of chemists (58 doctorates, 66 postdoctoral fellows, and countless bachelor’s and master’s degree candidates). Their names, along with lists of his honors, memberships, editorial boards, offices, services on committees and panels, consultantships, named lectures, ACS lecture tours, lists of the 1972 Dream Team of NATO Workshop (60 members) and of countries visited, and a family tree of Basolo’s professional genealogy dating back to the 15th century appear in a useful appendix. About one-third of his students, inspired by his love of teaching, entered academia. The roll of his former students reads like a “Who’s Who” of inorganic chemistry and chemical education. Like Bailar’s, Fred’s success as a research supervisor and teacher owed as much to his enduring human qualities as to his considerable chemical knowledge.

Fred’s autobiography reflects the warmth, humor, and charm that have endeared him to generations of colleagues and students. His sense of humor and intense interest in people is revealed by the inclusion of many lively stories and anecdotes. For those of us who lived through the years that he describes, his tale is a stroll down memory lane. For those who have not, it will fulfill Fred’s wish stated in his preface:

I hope that some of the young chemists who read this book will better appreciate the birth of inorganic chemistry in the US, after a gestation period of half a century (p xii).

This entertaining, informative, and modestly priced volume is a gold mine of information and insights for inorganic chemists. An inspiring, first-person Horatio Alger saga of an individual committed both to the practice of scientific research and to his profession, it will also be of interest to both present and future generations of students and instructors of chemistry courses and the history of science as well as to all persons concerned with the human aspects of science.

Fred Basolo’s book marks an auspicious beginning and has set a high standard for John Fackler’s important and much needed series. We look forward to future volumes by F. Albert Cotton, Robert Parry, Henry Taube, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, who are among the inorganic luminaries who are expected to contribute their autobiographies.

References and Notes

1.       Seeman, J. I. Effect of Conformational Change on Reactivity in Organic Chemistry: Evaluations, Applications, and Extensions of Curtin-Hammett/Winstein-Holness Kinetics. Chem. Rev. 1983, 83, 83–134.

2.       The full story of the initiation of the series, written in a humorous manner, appears in: Seeman, J. I. Extracting the essence. Adventures of the editor who guided a biographical tour de force. CHEMTECH 1990, 20, 86–90.

3.       (a) Johnson, W. S. A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry; Profiles, Pathways, and Dreams Series, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1998. (b) For a review see Kauffman; G. B.; Kauffman, L. M. Chem, Educator 1999, 4, 19–120; DOI 10.1007/s000897990302a.

4.       Nyholm, R. S. The Renaissance of Inorganic Chemistry. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 166–169.

5.       Kauffman, G. B.; Girolami, G. S.; Busch, D. H. John C. Bailar, Jr. (1904–1991): Father of Coordination Chemistry in the United States. Coord. Chem. Rev. 1993, 128, 1–48.

6.       Brown, T. L. University of Illinois School of Chemical Sciences Alumni Newsletter, Fall 1991, insert.

7.       One of us (GBK) independently has used the same approach as Bailar and Basolo, using, as they did, samples of crucial coordination compounds.

8.       Basolo, F.; Bailar, Jr., J. C.; Tarr, B. R. The Stereochemistry of Complex Inorganic Compounds. X. The Stereoisomers of Dichlorobis-(ethylenediamine)-platinum(IV) Chloride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1950, 72, 2433–2438.

9.       Rosenberg, B.; Van Camp, I.; Krigas, T. Nature 1965, 205, 698.

10.     Similarly, Rosenberg’s discovery caused the synthesis of cis- and trans-[PtCl2(NH3)2] (Kauffman, G. B.; Cowan, D. O. Inorg. Syn. 1963, 7, 239) to become a Citation Classic (Kauffman, G. B. Curr. Contents: Phys., Chem., & Earth Sci. 1988, 28 (6), 20).

11.     Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 10021005.

12.     Brock, W. H.; Jensen, K. A.; Jørgensen, C. K.; Kauffman, G. B. Ambix 1981, 28, 171–183.

13.     Basolo, F.; Pearson, R. G. Mechanisms of Inorganic Reactions; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, NY, 1958; 2nd ed., 1967.

14.     Kauffman, G. B. Am. Scientist 1959, 47, 272A.

15.     Basolo, F.; Johnson, R. C. Coordination Chemistry; W. A. Benjamin: New York, 1964. For a review see Kirschner, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 291; Coordination Chemistry; 2nd ed.; Science Reviews: Wilmington, DE, 1986. For a review see Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A191–A192.

16.     Jacoby, M. A. Chemist from Coello: 2001 Priestley Medalist Fred Basolo, who learned to love teaching in his tiny Illinois town, is honored for his contributions to inorganic chemistry. Chem. Eng. News 2001, 79 (13) (April 2), 59–63; Chicago chemist wins foremost national chemistry award. American Chemical Society News Service. http://center.acs.org/applications/ccs/application/ index.cfm?pressreleaseid=1631&categoryid=13.

17.     Basolo, F. Priestley Medal Address: Service to and from Chemistry. Chem. Eng. News 2001, 79 (15) (April 9), 46–54.

18.     Freedberg, D. The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, His Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History; University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, 2003; Baldriga, I. L’Occhio della Lince, I primi lincei tra arte, scienza e collezionismo; Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei: Rome, 2002.

George B. Kauffman and Laurie M. Kauffman

California State University, Fresno, georgek@csufresno.edu

S1430-4171(03)04707-2, 10.1333/s00897030707a

Clean Water: An introduction to water quality and water pollution control, second edition. By Kenneth M. Vigil. Oregon State University Press: Corvalis, OR, 2003. x + 181 pp. \$19.95. ISBN 0-87071-498-8.

This book aims to introduce the reader to the issue of water quality. All aspects of water are considered, from oceans and rivers through groundwater to tap water.

The book is a little poetic in places and the science very basic. It has the feel of a school textbook with each chapter beginning with an explicit aim and ending with a summary of what we should have learned. Having said this, it is readable, accessible and the information sound. The author is clearly concerned that water quality is under standard or under threat and seeks to transmit this concern to the reader. Throughout the book further reading and Web sites are suggested

Vigil introduces the water cycle and the influence of physical and human geography on this cycle and the quality of the water that flows through it. He defines the terms he will use before discussing sources of water pollution, prevention and clean-up techniques, and the laws and regulations common to the 48 contiguous states of the U.S.A. He then gives details about the watershed approach to water management, the supply of drinking water, and the personal steps we can all take to help raise water standards.

While the beginning is a little basic for someone with a background in the physical sciences, particularly chemistry, the book occasionally took me by surprise and brought together a lot of material in a useful way. Once I was over the beginning, I became more interested, as the human side of water, behavior, and statute became more prominent. Although the examples, particularly the laws, are specific to the U.S., the book is still worth reading ! For a U.S. resident, the section on laws and regulation would be a useful guide to the statutes that are in force, the agencies designed to police and monitor water regulations, and water quality.

I would suggest this book as a quick introduction to water quality and believe it would be a good text for high school projects and courses in this area.

Martin Christlieb

Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, England, Martin.Christlieb@chem.ox.ac.uk

S1430-4171(03)04708-1, 10.1333/s00897030708a

Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, 6th edition. Donald J. Abraham, Editor. 6 volumes. Wiley-Interscience: Hoboken, NJ, 2003. lxxxviii + 5531 pp., hardcover. 18.6 ´ 25.9 cm. \$2100.00; £1400.00; €2000.00. ISBN 0-471-37032-0. Each volume is also available separately at \$350.00; £233.00; €333.40: Vol. 1, ISBN 0-471-27090-3; Vol. 2, ISBN 0-471-37028-2; Vol. 3, ISBN 0-471-37029-0; Vol. 4, ISBN 0-471-37030-4; Vol. 5, ISBN 0-471-37031-2; Vol. 6, ISBN 0-471-27401-1.

Alfred Burger was born in Vienna, Austria on September 6, 1905 and received his Ph.D. degree from the Universität Wien in 1928. The following year he joined the Drug Addiction Laboratory at the University of Virginia, where he synthesized the morphine molecule in an attempt to find the analgesic pharmacophore. In 1938 he joined the university’s chemistry faculty, where he served as Professor of Chemistry and Department Chairman. Largely because of his efforts the department became the major training ground for medicinal chemists, and he is regarded as a major driving force in establishing medicinal chemistry as an independent science in the United States.

Burger’s research specialty was analgesics, antidepressants, and chemotherapeutic agents. One of the few academicians to have a drug designed and synthesized in his laboratory and brought to market (Parnate, a monoamine oxidase [MAO] inhibitor), he was the recipient of numerous awards and lectured throughout the world during his long and distinguished career. He founded the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (in 1958 and was its editor until 1971) and Medicinal Chemistry Research (in 1991 and was its editor for the first year before becoming editor emeritus). In 1978 GlaxoSmithKline established the biennial American Chemical Society Alfred Burger Award in Medicinal Chemistry “to recognize outstanding contributions to research in medicinal chemistry.”

Despite his battle with Parkinson’s disease, Burger made his last public appearance at a meeting of medicinal chemists when he delivered the opening remarks (reprinted in the reference set under review here) at the ACS 26th Medicinal Chemistry Symposium, chaired by Donald J. Abraham and held at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond on June 14, 1998. In 1998 VCU established the Alfred Burger Professorship in Medicinal Chemistry. In addition to his scholarly works Burger wrote popular books such as his last published work, written at age 90, Understanding Medications: What the Label Doesn’t Tell You (For a review see (Kauffman, L. M.; Kauffman, G. B. Am. Sci. 1996, 84, 409). He died on December 30, 2000 at the age of 95.

In 1951 Burger wrote the first major reference source on the subject, Medicinal Chemistry (2 volumes; Interscience Publishers: New York). The work quickly established itself as an internationally recognized standard reference source. The 2nd edition, which Burger edited, appeared as a single volume in 1960 (Interscience Publishers: New York).The 3rd (edited by Burger) and 4th (edited by Manfred E. Wolff, President of Technipharm Consultants and an internationally renowned authority on drug discovery) editions, both published by John Wiley and Sons, appeared in 1970 and 1979, respectively. The 5th edition, edited by Wolff, was published in five volumes by Wiley (Volume 1, “Principles and Practice” [1995], Volumes 2 and 3, “Therapeutic Agents” [1996], and Volumes 4 and 5, “Therapeutic Agents” [1997]).

The new and expanded 6th edition, three and one half years in the making, is a Memorial Edition to the late Professor Burger and is dedicated “To Alfred Burger and Max Perutz for their mentorship and life-long passion for science” (The editor worked with 1962 Nobel chemistry laureate Perutz [1914–2002] from 1980 to 1988).

Donald J. Abraham, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, and Director of the Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery at Virginia Commonwealth University, founder of Allos Therapeutics, a biotechnology firm, and cofounder of EduSoft LC, a software company specializing in drug design software, and recipient of a number of awards, is the Editor-in-Chief, and Professor Emeritus John Andrako of VCU’s School of Pharmacy is the Assistant Editor. The articles were written by 198 contributors from the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom from academe, industry, and government research institutes. Abraham coauthored four articles.

The new edition has several new and unique features not found in the 5th edition. For the first time, on an annual basis institutional customers can license an online version in full color (http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/bmcdd) with the additional advantages of an advanced search engine and the desktop convenience of easy Web access to updated articles to be added in the future. Prices depend on the type of institution, the user population, and the collection of Wiley InterScience products that the customer licenses. Also for the first time all volumes are structured entirely according to content and are published simultaneously (The volumes of the 5th edition appeared between 1995 and 1997).

In their attempt to make the latest edition of this major reference work the most comprehensive and useful to date the editors and editorial board members (18 authorities, nine of whom are also contributors, from American, German, and Swiss universities, research institutes, and drug firms) expanded the content of the 5th edition’s 69 chapters in five volumes by about 50 percent to 103 chapters in six volumes. For the first time an editorial board was established to review and suggest topics for inclusion.

The work is completely updated and revised to reflect the numerous enormous advances since publication of the 5th edition, including such topics as proteomics, genomics, bioinformatics, combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, blood substitutes, allosteric effectors as potential drugs, COX inhibitors, the statins, and high-throughput pharmacology. In addition to these and other new areas, gaps in the last edition have been filled by including subjects not included there. Furthermore, the first eight chapters of Volume 5 (a subsection of “Chemotherapeutic Agents”) have been devoted to cancer research. In order to ensure that no major therapeutic classes of drugs were omitted the most important medicinal chemistry and pharmacology texts were reviewed.

The newest innovation in the series will be the publication next yearof an academic, “textbook-like” version, Burger’s Fundamentals of Medicinal Chemistry, containing appropriate and key information from the six-volume set.

The articles in this comprehensive and systematic examination of new classes of drugs are carefully organized into numbered sections, subsections, and sub-subsections. Tens of thousands of up-to-date references (some including Internet hyperlinks), figures (some full-page and in color), tables (some several pages), mathematical and chemical equations, structural formulas, and reaction schemes are provided. Each volume contains a detailed index (ranging from 24 to 29 triple-column pages), and Volume 6 also includes a cumulative index (162 triple-column pages) to the entire set, thus facilitating location of material.

Because only a relatively short time has elapsed since the appearance of the last edition, persons and libraries owning that edition may wish to know the titles of the articles and their length in the new edition before deciding whether to purchase it. The following list should also be of interest to persons or libraries contemplating the purchase of the set for the first time.

Volume 1: “Drug Discovery” (xv + 932 pp.)

Chapter 1. “History of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships” (48 pp.)

Chapter 2. “Recent Trends in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships” (29 pp.)

Chapter 3. “Molecular Modeling in Drug Design” (91 pp., the longest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 4. “Drug–Target Binding Forces: Advances in Force Approaches” (15 pp., the shortest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 5. “Combinatorial Library Design, Molecular Similarity, and Diversity Applications” (56 pp.)

Chapter 6. “Virtual Screening” (37 pp.)

Chapter 7. “Docking and Scoring Functions/Virtual Screening” (51 pp.)

Chapter 8. “Bioinformatics: Its Role in Drug Discovery” (24 pp.)

Chapter 9. “Chemical Information Computing Systems in Drug Discovery” (60 pp.)

Chapter 10. “Structure-Based Drug Design” (53 pp.)

Chapter 11. “X-Ray Crystallography in Drug Discovery” (36 pp.)

Chapter 12. “NMR and Drug Discovery” (76 pp.)

Chapter 13 “Mass Spectrometry and Drug Discovery” (28 pp.)

Chapter 14. “Electron Cryomicroscopy of Biological Macromolecules” (22 pp.)

Chapter 15. “Peptidomimetics for Drug Design” (53 pp.)

Chapter 16. “Analog Design” (28 pp.)

Chapter 17. “Approaches to the Rational Design of Enzyme Inhibitors” (65 pp.)

Chapter 18. “Chirality and Biological Activity” (46 pp.)

Chapter 19. “Structural Concepts in the Prediction of the Toxicity of Therapeutical Agents” (19 pp.)

Chapter 20. “Natural Products as Leads for New Pharmaceuticals” (54 pp.)

Volume 2: “Drug Discovery and Drug Development” (xv + 808 pp.)

Chapter 1. “Combinatorial Chemistry and Multiple Parallel Synthesis” (36 pp.)

Chapter 2. “High-Throughput Screening for Lead Discovery” (33 pp.)

Chapter 3. “High-Throughput Pharmacology” (10 pp., the shortest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 4. “Application of Recombinant DNA Technology in Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery” (33 pp.)

Chapter 5. “Oligonucleotide Therapeutics” (52 pp.)

Chapter 6. “Therapeutic Agents Acting on RNA Targets” (35 pp.)

Chapter 7. “Carbohydrate-Based Therapeutics” (46 pp.)

Chapter 8. “Membrane Transport Proteins and Drug Transport” (45 pp.)

Chapter 9. “Allosteric Proteins and Drug Discovery” (23 pp.)

Chapter 10. “Receptor Targets in Drug Discovery and Development” (37 pp.)

Chapter 11. “Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors” (49 pp.)

Chapter 12. “Large-Scale Synthesis” (24 pp.)

Chapter 13. “Principles of Drug Metabolism” (68 pp.)

Chapter 14. “Metabolic Considerations in Prodrug Design” (34 pp.)

Chapter 15. “Retrometabolism-Based Drug Design and Targeting” (75 pp.)

Chapter 16. “Drug Discovery: The Role of Toxicology” (23 pp.)

Chapter 17. “Drug Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination” (15 pp.)

Chapter 18. “Physicochemical Characterization and Principles of Oral Dosage Form Selection” (34 pp.)

Chapter 19. “The FDA and Regulatory Issues” (19 pp.)

Chapter 20. “Intellectual Property in Drug Discovery and Biotechnology” (80 pp., the longest chapter in the volume)

Volume 3: “Cardiovascular Agents and Endocrines” (xv + 880 pp)

Chapter 1. “Cardiac Drugs: Antianginal, Vasodilators, Antiarrhythmics” (53 pp.)

Chapter 2. “Diuretic and Uricosuric Agents” (100 pp.)

Chapter 3. “Myocardial Infarction Agents” (38 pp.)

Chapter 4. “Endogenous Vasoactive Peptides” (58 pp.)

Chapter 5. “Hematopoietic Agents” (31 pp.)

Chapter 6. “Anticoagulants, Antithrombotics, and Hemostatics” (56 pp.)

Chapter 7. “Antihyperlipidemic Agents” (45 pp.)

Chapter 8. “Oxygen Delivery by Allosteric Effectors of Hemoglobin, Blood Substitutes, and Plasma Expanders” (57 pp.)

Chapter 9. “Inhibitor of Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization as a Basis for Therapeutic Approach to Sickle-Cell Anemia” (35 pp.)

Chapter 10. “Iron Chelators and Therapeutic Uses” (83 pp.)

Chapter 11. “Thyroid Hormones and Thyromimetics” (30 pp., the shortest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 12. “Fundamentals of Steroid Chemistry and Biochemistry” (35 pp.)

Chapter 13. “Female Sex Hormones, Contraceptives, and Fertility Drugs” (48 pp.)

Chapter 14. “Male Sex Hormones, Analogs, and Antagonists” (68 pp.)

Chapter 15. “Anti-Inflammatory Steroids” (107 pp, the longest chapter in the volume)

Volume 4: Autocoids, Diagnostics, and Drugs from New Biology” (xiv + 702 pp., the shortest volume)

Chapter 1. “Insulin and Hypoglycemic Agents” (44 pp.)

Chapter 2. “Peptide and Protein Hormones, Peptide Neurotransmitters, and Therapeutic Agents” (39 pp.)

Chapter 3. “Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion” (43 pp.)

Chapter 4. “Chemokine and Cytokine Modulators” (74 pp.)

Chapter 5. “COX-2 Inhibitors and Leukotriene Modulators” (61 pp.)

Chapter 6. “Agents Acting on Prostanoid Receptors” (51 pp.)

Chapter 7. “Retinoids” (42 pp.)

Chapter 8. “Vitamins” (62 pp.)

Chapter 9. “Lifestyle and Over-the-Counter Drugs” (62 pp.)

Chapter 10. “Radiopaques” (116 pp., the longest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 11. “Microarrays and Gene Expression Profiling Applied to Drug Research” (18 pp., the shortest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 12. “SNPS: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Pharmacogenomics — Individually Designed Drug Therapy” (33 pp.)

Chapter 13. “Plasmid DNA-Mediated Gene Therapy” (52 pp.)

Volume 5: “Chemotherapeutic Agents” (xv + 1125 pp, the longest volume)

Chapter 1. “Molecular Biology of Cancer” (50 pp.)

Chapter 2. “Synthetic DNA-Targeted Chemotherapeutic Agents and Related Tumor-Activated Prodrugs” (55 pp.)

Chapter 3. “Antitumor Natural Products” (44 pp.)

Chapter 5. “Synthetic Antiangiogenic Agents” (8 pp., the shortest chapter in both the volume and the entire set)

Chapter 6. “Future Strategies in Immunotherapy” (25 pp.)

Chapter 7. “Selective Toxicity” (32 pp.)

Chapter 8. “Drug Resistance in Cancer Chemotherapy” (11 pp.)

Chapter 9. “Antiviral Agents, DNA” (65 pp.)

Chapter 10. “Antiviral Agents, RNA Viruses (Other Than HIV), and Orthopoxviruses” (97 pp.)

Chapter 11. “Rationale of Design of Anti-HIV Drugs” (26 pp.)

Chapter 12. “Organ Transplant Drugs” (52 pp.)

Chapter 13. “Synthetic Antibacterial Agents” (70 pp.)

Chapter 14. “b-Lactam Antibiotics” (29 pp.)

Chapter 15. “Tetracycline, Aminoglycoside, Macrolide, and Miscellaneous Antiobiotics” (70 pp.)

Chapter 16. “Antimycobacterial Agents” (73 pp.)

Chapter 17. “Antifungal Agents” (38 pp.)

Chapter 18. “Antimalarial Agents” (113 pp., the longest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 19. “Antiprotozoal Agents” (55 pp.)

Chapter 20. “Antihelmintics” (8 pp.)

Volume 6: “Nervous System Agents” (xiv + 1084 pp)

Chapter 2. “Cholinergics” (70 pp.)

Chapter 3. “Anticholinergic Drugs” (57 pp.)

Chapter 4. “CNS Stimulants” (33 pp.)

Chapter 5. “Sedative-Hypnotics” (61 pp.)

Chapter 6. “Anticonvulsants” (66 pp.)

Chapter 7. “Narcotic Analgesics” (153 pp., the longest chapter in both the volume and the entire set)

Chapter 8. “Antidepressants” (42 pp.)

Chapter 9. “Antianxiety Agents” (73 pp.)

Chapter 10. “Antipsychotic Agents” (74 pp.)

Chapter 11. “Investigative Agents for Use in Neurodegenerative Conditions” (37 pp.)

Chapter 12. “Therapeutic and Diagnostic Agents for Parkinson’s Disease” (31 pp., the shortest chapter in the volume)

Chapter 13. “Alzheimer’s Disease: Search for Therapeutics” (35 pp.)

Chapter 14. “Cognition Enhancers” (57 pp.)

Chapter 15. “Drugs to Treat Eating and Body Weight Disorders” (57 pp.)

The 6th edition of Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discoverywill give medical researchers comprehensive yet selective access in a convenient format to both the history as well as the most recent information on chemical structures, chemical reactions, reaction mechanisms, pharmacology, and biochemical mechanisms of therapeutic agents that is essential for developing new drugs and treatment regimens and for understanding the molecular basis of disease. Its articles in a wide variety of fields explore recent advances in understanding the structural biology of drug action and cutting-edge technologies for drug discovery around the world. They should enable researchers to acquaint themselves with both traditional and state-of-the-art principles and practices governing new medicinal drug research and development.

The intention of the editor and contributors to this latest edition of an authoritative standard reference work was “to provide a spectrum of fields that would provide new or experienced medicinal chemists, biologists, pharmacologists and molecular biologists entry to their subjects of interest as well as provide a current and global perspective of drug design, and drug development.” In my opinion they have succeeded admirably in accomplishing this goal, and I am pleased to recommend it heartily as an essential reference source to all medical professionals, researchers, and libraries.

George B. Kauffman

California State University, Fresno, georgek@csufresno.edu

S1430-4171(03)04709-0, 10.1333/s00897030709a

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, 7th edition (International Student Edition). By Frederick A. Bettelheim, William H. Brown, and Jerry March. Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, USA, 2004. Illustrations. xxiv + 840 pp. 22.1´ 28.3 cm. Hardcover. \$123.95. ISBN 0-534-40211-9.

Do you need a good book that supports your first year in life science at a university level? The new edition of Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry is designed for those who are looking for an easy approach to chemistry, the science that uncovers the mysteries of the world surrounding us. Covering the fundamentals of general, organic, and biochemistry, Bettelheim, Brown, and March present a text that enthusiastically conveys basic concepts in a readable and understandable way. Although not intended for students pursuing a higher degree in chemistry, this textbook, spanning over 800 pages, serves as a useful tool for students entering health sciences and related subjects with little or no background in the field.

The concisely written book falls into three parts. The first nine chapters (Part I, General Chemistry) lay the basis for the chemistry needed to understand the rest of the book. Starting from scratch, one learns what atoms are and how they form chemical bonds to give molecules and salts. Apart from learning how to deal with chemical equations, stoichiometry, and kinetics these chapters provide a sound introduction to acids and bases and nuclear chemistry.

The second part (Chapters 10–18) eases the reader into the realm of organic chemistry. Although mechanistic studies have been omitted for the most part, one gets an overview of the most important functional groups of organic molecules. Students are encouraged to consider the reactivity of functional groups in terms of identifying the regions where chemical transformations occur. The textbook is livened with several examples of research applications, which keeps it from becoming a banal compendium of principles. Although organic analytical aspects are missing, the audience should obtain a sufficient baseline knowledge of organic chemistry to proceed to the third part of the book, which contains a variety of biochemical topics.

The final part tries to bridge the gap between pure organic chemistry and its applications in biological systems. It provides a broad survey of biochemistry, rather than a deep discussion of particular topics therein. But within these last thirteen Chapters topics such as immunochemistry and gene expression and protein synthesis provide an interdisciplinary coverage of concepts necessary for a general understanding of life science.

Several features in each chapter allow the context to be presented in a structured manner. Throughout the text, worked examples and corresponding problems help to develop problem solving skills. Margin notes and definitions offer additional information and reinforce key terminology. All chapters conclude with a brief summary, key reactions, and several end-of-chapter problems. The questions are mathematically straightforward and reflect the content of the text; however, answers are given for the odd-numbered problems only. A particular pleasure are the “Chemical Connections” boxes dealing mainly with health-related applications. The authors definitely succeeded in enhancing the main text with these eye-opening examples of everyday phenomena. Suggestions for further reading would have been appreciated considering the enormously large scope of the book.

Several useful resources accompany the textbook. The seventh edition is complemented by an interactive CD-ROM containing many tutorials enlivened by colorful pictures, animations, and three-dimensional molecules that clarify the key themes. The CD also provides an excellent tool for review. In addition to the multimedia CD-ROM, you will get a four-month free subscription to InfoTrac College Edition (ICE). ICE is a searchable online university library; its database is updated daily and permits access to popular and academic publications, including journals, magazines, encyclopedias, and newsletters dating back as much as four years. In addition, manifold ancillaries such as instructor manuals, a study guide, and overhead transparencies are available. Several links to interactive Web sites and computerized testing materials are referenced.

What in the preface looks like an advertising brochure with random illustrations is revealed to be a valuable course book for the education of future practitioners of health sciences. Overall, the new product of this series is adequate for an introductory biochemistry course, and its exposition is significantly better than most others. This edition also contains more conceptual problems than before and has been partially redesigned to accommodate new styles of learning and teaching with a wide variety of pedagogical tools.

I am pleased to recommend this textbook to all nonchemistry majors. It is an excellent book to start your journey to discovering chemistry.

Dominic Ehrismann

Dyson Perrins Laboratory, University of Oxford, England, dominic.ehrismann@chem.ox.ac.uk

S1430-4171(03)04710-1, 10.1333/s00897030710a

Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, 5th edition. By John C. Kotz and Paul M. Treichel, Art Development and Design by Patrick A. Harman, published in the USA by Thomson Learning. xlvi + 997 + A103 + I/G 26 pp.; hardbound £34.99. ISBN 0-03-033604-X. The book is accompanied by two interactive general chemistry CD-ROMS and also refers to an optional online Web-based learning homework system, OWL.

This book is dedicated to editor and publisher John Vonderling who “... produced a library of beautiful and elegant books that made a difference”. This book is certainly attractive and beautifully illustrated with a large number of color photos and diagrams, roughly 300 new ones by Charles Winters, so that many photographs in previous editions have been replaced. I reserve judgment as to whether it will make a difference to UK chemistry courses.

The stated goals of the authors are to provide a broad overview of the principles of chemistry, the reactivity of the chemical elements and their compounds, and the applications of chemistry. They also aim to convey a sense of chemistry as a field that has a lively history but is currently dynamic, and this partly explains why the production of this edition took almost three years. The authors clearly realize that not only is chemistry dynamic but so too is teaching and they have made some changes in order to organize the information for more effective learning. Chapters are organized with an opening essay to place the subject in context, a list of goals, a “before-you-begin” list of what you should know before starting the chapter, and a chapter focus page. The example problems have a new layout and the end-of-chapter study questions are now organized differently.

The authors suggested audience for the textbook, CD-ROM, and OWL are students who are doing introductory courses in chemistry because they are interested in further study in science. The assumption is that these students will have had some preparation in algebra and general science, but a previous exposure to chemistry is neither assumed nor required. As someone educated in England but teaching in Scotland, it is hard to see how this would fit anyone in a British education system. The layout of the book is attractive and would encourage a student to read it, but the style of the text would only suit those at the very top of secondary or lower levels of tertiary education, although it is very readable for more able students.

The content that a pupil would study in their first four or five years of a school chemistry course is covered in relatively few pages and the book moves on rapidly to ideas such as errors, precision, and accuracy. The student has progressed to the study of atomic structure, the experiments that lead to the discovery of the structure of the atom and to isotopes early in the second chapter. Concepts are clearly explained throughout, however, and there are plenty of study questions to try.

Sections on spectra, quantum numbers, and electron configurations, hybridization, reaction rates, and electrode potentials, to name but a few, are all topics that an advanced higher student in Scotland and an A-level student in England, would study. Some aspects such as intermolecular forces and equilibrium would be included at higher and the copy of the book could well be an asset to a school library as a reference book to “dip into,” rather than a course textbook. It may also cover many aspects of some first year university courses.

Although this is a fairly expensive package, the CD-ROMs are certainly worth having in their own right and the text constantly links to these. The electronic chapters follow those of the book closely and, being interactive, the CD will be an extra incentive to encourage active student participation. Features such as the interactive periodic table, the Rasmol models and other aids will supplement the simulations, tutorials and exercises.

Sylvia Broomfield

Beaconhurst School, Bridge of Allan, Scotland, s.broomfield@beaconhurst.stirling.sch.uk

S1430-4171(03)04711-0, 10.1333/s00897030711a

A Century of Nobel Prize Recipients: Chemistry, Physics, and Medicine. Francis Leroy, Editor. Marcel Dekker: New York, NY, 2003. 380 pp., hardcover. 21.5  ´ 28.2 cm. \$150.00. ISBN 0-8247-0876-8.

Francis Leroy received his B.S. degree in zoology from the University of Leuven, Belgium and a second B.S. degree from the University of Brussels, Belgium. He is the owner of Éditions Biocosmos Centre (Thuin, Belgium), and, as such, he published three volumes in the series, "Les Prix Nobel de Science"—Leroy, F. Dictionnaire Encyclopédique des Prix Nobel de Médecine (Biocosmos, 1997); Ronneau, C.; Leroy, F. Dictionnaire Encyclopédique des Prix Nobel de Chimie (Biocosmos, 1997); andDemortier, G. Dictionnaire Encyclopédique des Prix Nobel de Physique  (Biocosmos, 1998).These three volumes have been translated into English (Médecine by Kathleen Broman, Richard Epstein, Rebecca Petrush, and János Freuling; Chimie by Kathleen Broman, Robert Crichton, and Jean-Marie André; and Physique by Natalie Jockmans) and combined into one volume.

The resulting oversize, copiously illustrated book, printed on two-column pages of heavy glossy paper, is truly a work of art, replete with hundreds of beautiful illustrations, many in color, produced by draftsmen and artists—portraits, figures, diagrams, structures, apparatus, electron- or scanning-microscope images, and reaction schemes. Portraits, full color or black and white, some photographic and some redrawn from photographs, and a few caricatures, are provided for most but not all of the 450 Nobelists from 1901 to 2001.

Following a two-page biography of Alfred Nobel (1833–1896), the book is divided into three sections—Chemistry (99 pp), Physics (115 pp), and Medicine (132 pp), all on double-column pages, each prefaced by a two-page introduction printed on an imaginative, artistic illustration. The entries for each laureate, arranged in chronological order, consist of brief summaries of his or her life and career with emphasis on the prize-winning work and range in length from a single paragraph to several pages. Names of laureates are usually, but not always typed in boldface. British spelling is usually but not consistently used throughout the book.

Fifteen of the illustrations are full page, and some are two-page oil paintings created especially for this volume. Unfortunately, some of the illustrations appear to have been chosen on æsthetic or nonscientific grounds rather than on relevance to the subject. For example, the entry on Robert Koch includes a poster advertising the 1939 motion picture “Gone with the Wind” (Actress Vivien Leigh, who played Scarlett O’Hara, died of tuberculosis, p 235), and the entry on Christiaan Eijkmann is accompanied by a map of Indonesia where he carried out his research on beriberi (p 250) (Throughout this review I have used boldface type for the names of Nobel laureates to emphasize the fact that the errors and shortcomings of the book involve not only minor matters but the subject of the volume itself). Furthermore, many of the captions do not provide information useful for understanding the figures.

In most of the structural and other formulas the numbers of atoms are printed on the line rather than as subscripts and the mass numbers for isotopes are printed on the line rather than as superscripts. Also, for many, if not most, of the molecular models, either tinker-toy or space-filling type, the atoms are not identified, rendering them useless except for showing the shape of the molecule.

The hallmark of a dictionary or encyclopedia is not only coverage but, equally as important, accuracy, and in this area too A Century of Nobel Prize Recipients possesses serious deficiencies. Unfortunately, the volume not only suffers from careless proofreading but also appears not to have been proofread at all. In fact, I would venture to state that it has not even been read by either author or editor. In contrast to the title on the front and back cover and spine, the title on the opening pages (pp 1 and 3) appears as A Century of Nobel Prizes [sic] Recipients: Chemistry, Physics and Medicine (The Prize in Physiology or Medicine is consistently referred to merely as “Medicine”). A cursory reading reveals that on at least 43 occasions hyphens appear incorrectly in the middle of words or sentences as if the text were reproduced on the pages from a computer without even being read by a human being. The spacing, punctuation, and syllabification are idiosyncratic, and in some cases no space separates sentences.

The book contains an incredible number of errors of various types on virtually every page (I stopped searching after finding 300). The following list is illustrative rather than exhaustive: “amine” for “ammine” (p 18); “dipols” for “dipoles” (p 19); “Van’t Hoff” for “van’t Hoff” (p 19); “phenolphtaleine” for “phenolphthalein” (p 20); “Marcelin” for “Marcellin” (Berthelot, p 22); “Tomsen” for “Thomsen” (Julius, p 22); “Walter” for “Walther” (Nernst, pp 23, 34, 36, 50, 59); “Berthelo’s” for “Berthelot’s” (p 25); “Ramsey” for “Ramsay” (William, p 29); “Sidney” for “Sydney” (Australia, pp 49, 77); “Ishpming” for “Ishpeming” (Michigan, p 51); “gasses” for “gases” (p 54); “Ronal” for “Ronald” (Norrish, p 72); “Birbeek” (p 73) or “Birbeck” (p 86) for “Birkbeck;” “GoodYear” for “Goodyear” (p 77); “Perdue” for “Purdue” (p 83); “Frederik” for “Frederick” (Sanger, p 83; and other persons, for example, p 276); “Franck” for “Frank” (F. Sherwood Rowland (pp 101, 102); “Carnergie” (p 109) and “Carnegy” (p 332) for “Carnegie;” “MacDiarrmid” for “MacDiarmid” (p 109); “van Vleck” for “Van Vleck” (p 191); “Dalem” for “Dahlem” (p 203); “Russel” for “Russell” (Hulse, pp 212, 213, 368); “Friedich-Wilhem” for “Friedrich-Wilhelm” (p 265); “Showalther” for “Showalter” (Hench, pp 270, 271); “Waksmann” for “Waksman” (p 273); “Woodruf” for “Woodruff” (Richards, p 277); “Franck McFarlane” for “Frank Macfarlane” (Burnet, pp 283, 284, 321, 365); “Rosalyn” for “Rosalind” (Franklin, pp 285, 287, 288); “Niremberg” for “Nirenberg” (pp 286, 298); “Rosalynn” for “Rosalyn” (Yalow, p 322); “Wortcestershire” for “Worcestershire” (p 331); “Donnal” for “Donnall” (Thomas, pp 341, 342); “developped” for “developed” (p 342); “David” for “Arvid” (Carlsson, p 355); “Sackmann” (p 342–344) and “Sackman” (p 343) for “Sakmann;” and “Friedich” for “Friedrich” (Bergius, p 362).

The translation is somewhat awkward at spots, but the meaning is usually clear. A few of the numerous infelicities, misspellings, or errors introduced as a result of inadequate translation from the French, include “physico-chemist” for “physical chemist” (p 18); “edifice” for “configuration” (p 25); “monoxyde” and “peroxyde” (p 25); “medecine” (p 33, 203); “porphyrine” (p 35); “Freibourg” for “Freiburg” (pp 45, 54); “catalysers” (p 51, 68, 77); “transuranians” (p 51); “adsorbants” (p 53); “teacher” for “professor” (pp 62, 88, 298); “laboratorium” (p 103); “price” for “prize” (p 107); “oxydase” (p 108); “experience” for “experiment” (pp 259, 302); “litterature” (p 263); “Italie” (p 302); and “Magdebourg” (p 347).

Even Nobel laureates, the very subjects of the book, are not immune from translation errors: “Henri” for “Henry” (Dale, pp 60, 259, 363); “Léon” (Cooper, pp 163, 185, 211, 375; Lederman, pp 206, 207); “Eugène” for “Eugene” (Wigner, pp 171, 173, 376); “Jérôme” for “Jerome” (Karle, pp 88, 89, 375); “Léo” for “Leo” (Rainwater, pp 189, 190, 376); “Georges” for “George” (Beadle, p 279); and “Edouard” for “Eduard” (Buchner, p 361). Apparently, turnabout is fair play in translation errors for French laureates; Henri Becquerel is misspelled “Henry” (pp 119, 375), and François Jacob is misspelled “Francois” (p 293). Also, the abscissa and ordinate for the figure on p 170 remain in the original French.

Diacritical marks are sometimes missing, as in place names such as Tübingen, Würzburg, Zürich, and even persons’ names such as Heyrovský (p 61); Kekulé (p 101); and César (Milstein, pp 333, 367); and incorrect ones are sometimes given, as in “Segré” (p 51). Also, some are occasionally inserted when not needed, as in “Arrhénius” (many times), “Adelaïde” (Australia, p 267); and “Shanghaï” (p 344).

In a number of cases the given names of laureates are provided in incorrect order, middle names are used instead of first names, or first names are used for persons who used their middle names, for example, “William” (p 30) or “W.” (pp 369, 373) for “Theodore William” (Richards); “Josephus” for “Peter”(Debye, p 41); “Carl L.” (p 55) and “Carl Linus” (p 58) for “Linus” (Pauling); “Otto” for “Ernst Otto” (Fischer, p 77); “Kai M.” for “Manne” (Siegbahn, p 197); “Theresa Gerty” (p 268) and “Theresa” (p 314) for “Gerty Theresa” (Cori); “Woodruff Richards Dickinson” for “Dickinson Woodruff Richards” (p 278); and “Sherwood F.” for “F. Sherwood” (Rowland, p 368).

Also, the book fails even to mention that John William Strutt was Lord Rayleigh, the name by which he is usually known (pp 122, 361, 371, 376). Furthermore, last names for many persons, laureates or nonlaureates, are given without first names, making identification difficult. For a number of entries on newer laureates not included in the French volumes, data such as exact birth dates and places of birth or death are lacking.

More serious, however, are the errors of fact. For example, Eduard Buchner was killed on August 13, 1917 (The day is not given, p 21); Alfred Werner’s father was an iron worker not a foreman (p 25); William Prout not Joseph Louis Proust proposed the hypothesis that atomic weights of elements are multiples of that of hydrogen (p 26); and Frederick Soddy’s political and economic contributions (the subject of an entire book: Merricks, L. The World Made New; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997) are not mentioned, and isotopes are not defined or explained (p 29). Arthur Harden worked at the Universität Erlangen in 1887–1888 with Otto Fischer not Ernst Otto (“E. O.”) Fischer, who was not born until 1918 (p 34). Richard Kuhn not Robert Kuhn isolated b-carotene (p 43).

The nitrogenous bases of DNA are all incorrectly identified (p 60); “adenine” is actually guanine; “cytosine” is actually adenine with a hydrogen atom incorrectly attached to one of the nitrogen atoms on the benzene ring; “guanine” is actually thymine; “thymine” is actually uracil; and “uracile [sic]” is actually cytosine. Ferrocene was discovered by T. J. Kealy and P. L. Pauson (1951) and independently by S. A. Miller, J. A. Tebboth, and J. F. Tremaine (1952) not by E. O. Fischer (p 77). Herbert Hauptman was born on February 14, 1917 (the day is not given, p 88).

The birthplace of John C. Polanyi, whose parents were Hungarian, is correctly given as Berlin, but on the very next line he is incorrectly described as a “German chemist born in Hungary” (p 91). Similarly, the birthplace of Charles J. Pedersen, whose father was Norwegian, is correctly given as Pusan, Korea, but two lines later he is incorrectly described as “born in Norway” (p 93). In the entries for the 1996 Chemistry Prize (pp 103–105), no mention is made of W. Krätschmer, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, and L. Lamb’s 1990 synthesis of fullerenes in gram amounts, which converted them from exotic curiosities to commonplace substances and probably led to Robert F. Curl, Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley’s prize. Maurice H. F. Wilkins was born on December 15 (not December 4), 1916 (p 288).

Although 20 physiology or medicine laureates and 21 chemistry laureates are acknowledged for contributions, they must not have seen their entries. James D. Watson, who does not suffer fools gladly, would have been chagrined to learn that he was born in Chicago, Germany! (p 287).

The volume contains an 8-page triple-column table listing all the laureates and the basis for their awards (A number of the earlier errors in the laureates’ names are repeated here along with new errors; Soddy is referred to as “Freddy Soddy,” p 362). The entries for the 1980 laureates are inexplicably repeated (pp 366–367), as is Watson and Crick’s famous understatement concerning their suggested pairing of the DNA bases as a possible mechanism for genetic material (pp 285, 287), further evidence of lack of proofreading, if any more proof were required. A five-page (double-column) bibliography, peppered with “typos” and lacking sufficient detail is given, along with a two-page (four-column) index of laureates, which refers to only the main entries not to the many other pages on which laureates’ names appear. No index of any other names is provided. A four-page (four-column) subject index concludes the volume.

It is indeed unfortunate that I am unable to recommend this attractive volume, involving so many collaborators with ostensibly good intentions and intended as a reference source for the general public; for high school, college, and university students; and for practicing chemists, physicists, and physicians with an interest in the history of their fields—the very audience unlikely to recognize the numerous errors (An intriguing question is how many of the numerous errors are found in the original French volumes, which were unavailable to me). Anyone using A Century of Nobel Prize Recipients: Chemistry, Physics, and Medicine will need to visit a library to consult other more authoritative sources such as the Nobel Web site (www.nobel.se) or the Encyclopædia Britannica to check specific facts and spellings, to correct errors, and to find additional, more detailed information.

George B. Kauffman

California State University, Fresno, georgek@csufresno.edu

S1430-4171(03)04712-X, 10.1333/s00897030712a

CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa: How Everyday Products are Made, Series 3.Edited by Mei Ling Rein. Published by U·X·L, Gale, Farmington Hill, MI 48331-3535; http://www.gale.com; 2002. 2 vols. xxxi + 286 pp. Hardcover. 9.90 ´ 7.65 ´ 1.71 in. 2.74 lbs. US\$99.00. ISBN 0-7876-6476-6 (set), ISBN 0-7876-6477-4 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-7876-6478-2 (vol. 2). LC 2002-011307

CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa: How Everyday Products are Made, Series 3 continues the popular Series 1 [1] and Series 2 [2], and provides coverage of 30 additional household and interesting products. In total, 90 recent products are described in the three series, which are divided into 6 volumes of about 900 pages, averaging 8 to 10 pages for each entry. A wide scope and low-tech language make these series entertaining and comprehensive for young people. Items included relate to trends that influence people’s diets, clothes, habitations, transport, education, entertainments, sports, and lifestyle. These series emphasize current technology and provide information on invention and development, manufacturing processes, quality control, and future products.

Series 3 of CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa answers a wide variety of questions about the manufacture of 30 significant products, which students use, see, hear, or read about every day. Entries cover common products such as ballpoint pens and soft drinks, through items like M&M’s candy and DVD players, to less-common ones like gas masks and spacesuits. This series describes in detail the “why and how” of each product, provides step-by-step descriptions of the manufacturing processes, and even offers predictions about product enhancements for the future. Series 3’s photos, illustrations, and fun-to-read language make it easy to understand the complicated processes involved in creative inventions.

The thirty entries of Series 3 are arranged alphabetically in two volumes. In each entry, students will learn the secrets behind the manufacture of a product through the details of its history, including who invented it and why; how it was developed and how it works; how and from what it is made; how the product might be used in the future; and a list of books, periodicals, and Web sites that offer additional information. Fact boxes provide interesting supplementary knowledge. One new feature in Series 3 is that important terms are highlighted and defined in page margins for easy understanding of scientific concepts.

The uses and manufacture of products are enlivened with 94 black-and-white photos and 55 line drawings. Each volume contains a cumulative general subject/name index of all six volumes in this series, which provides easy access to entries by key terms, processes, and people searching.

Entry subheads make the information for each entry clear for students. Entries include features as follows. A typical example is that for a Soft Drink, in which the entries are described in italic below for each feature.

·  Background of product, including details on its history or development. Bubble bath, manmade mineral water, caffeinated soda water, and growing thirst. Two photos and two fact boxes included.

·  Raw materials needed for production. No subhead.

·  Design of product and how it works. No subhead. One photo included.

·  Manufacturing processes. Clarifying the water in step 1, filtering, sterilizing, and dechlorinating the water in steps 2–4, mixing the ingredients in steps 5–6, carbonating the soft drink in step 7, and filling and packing in steps 8–10. Two illustrations included.

·  For more information. One book, two periodicals, and three Web sites added. Sixteen key terms included.

Considering how the features of CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa relate to elements of science, technology, and society (STS), discussions of “product background, including details on its history or development” are readily associated with the social element of STS. Moreover, “manufacturing processes,” “design of product and how it works,” and “quality control” relate to the technological element of STS. Furthermore, the scientific element of STS is shown in each essay, particularly in key terms definitions. STS is briefly defined as the technology that bridges science and society. Social studies curricula should include experiences that provide for the study of relationships among science, technology, and society [3], and in this context these series are appropriate textbooks in social study curriculum for secondary and middle school. The series have already been used as teaching materials for social studies curriculum in “interdependence (grade 8): local and global families/schools/work organizations” in Saskatchewan, and “geography (grade 8): economic systems” in Ontario, Canada [4].

Deservedly, Series 3 has been recommended by Pennsylvania School Librarians' Association (PSLA) as one of the top forty 2002 reference titles for Pennsylvania young adults. Jennie Pittman, a reviewer of PSLA, commented:

The design or invention of the product, quality control issues and future products are also discussed…Well illustrated and organized, these 2 new volumes are a welcome addition to a highly useful series [5].

Joyce Valenza, another reviewer, had the opinion:

If you use the first two series, you’ll want this too [5].

Certainly, if these series were translated into Chinese, I would be willing to recommend them as applicable reference books for the integrated curriculum “science and technology in life” in middle schools of Taiwan. The curriculum emphasizes that students acquire the ability of recognition of science and technology, and understanding the invention and development of those [6]. The whole series can provide exactly these STS ideas.

Series 3 shares the same title as Series 1 and Series 2, that is, CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa: How Everyday Products are Made, but there are actually no title-like products in Series 2 and Series 3. New readers may be confused to discover that the three items—CDs, super glue, and salsa—are not mentioned in the last two series. In addition, the contents of the first two series are not listed in Series 3 so that new readers will not know what entries are in the first two series. Unfortunately, these series are sometimes incorrectly allocated to the music, or stage & screen categories, in bookstores Web sites as well as the science and nature section. The publishers might wish to consider changing the title to one that more accurately matches the content of these series.

Step-by-step manufacturing processes with black-and-white illustrations are provided. However, if supplemented by a CD-ROM with either animation or video in color, students will be attracted to learn more of the technology.

Book reviews in connection with Series 1 are listed below.

·  “Each entry includes a brief history of the item and an explanation of how it works, but the main body of each article is a step-by-step, numbered guide to the actual making of a particular item…While the text is dry, it is also extremely clear and concise. [7]”

·  “The sources include magazines that most school libraries would own as well as references that would typically be held by public or college libraries. This readable, interesting book will be used by students in preparing reports…There are enough illustrations and diagrams to encourage poorer readers to continue using the material. [8]”

·  CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa is language-based and tells the stories of a number of popular products that are both mechanical and nonmechanical…The work is a smart, well-edited, and well-written reference set. [9]”

Book reviews related to Series2 are described below:

·  “The language is low-tech and easy to understand; pictures and diagrams clarify the information…Although intended for a middle school audience, this set is fun and informative as a reference and for casual reading for all ages. [10]”

·  “Concise and clearly written, the text makes technical information accessible to average readers…Black-and-white line drawings illustrating the manufacturing processes are useful visual aids, but the black-and-white photographs of the products and people using them are quite dull and often downright fuzzy. [11]”

·  “This set is written for an older audience, ranging from middle schoolers through adults. However, it lacks the visual appeal and interesting style of the books for younger readers. [12]”

References and Notes

1.       Series 1 of CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa: How Everyday Products Are Made Edited by Sharon Rose and Neil Schlager. Published by U·X·L, Gale. 1995. Two vols. 280 pp. Hardcover. ISBN 0-8103-9791-9 (set). LC 94-35243.

2.       Series 2 of CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa: How Everyday Products Are Made Edited by Kathleen L. Witman, Kyung Lim Kalasky, and Neil Schlager. Published by U·X·L, Gate. 1996. Two vols. 320 pp. Hardcover. ISBN 0-7876-0870-X (set). LC 96-12523.

3.       National Council for the Social Studies, Curriculum Standards, Expectations of Excellence, Two: Ten Strands, VIII: Science, Technology, and Society. http://www.ncss.org/standards/2.8.html (accessed July 2003)

4.       Canada curriculum collections. http://www.saundersbook.ca /pages/curriculum.html (accessed July 2003)

5.       PSLA YA Top Forty 2002 Reference Titles, http://mciu.org /~spjvweb/reference02.html (accessed July 2003)

6.       1st-9th Grades Curriculum Alignment Web Site of Ministry of Education in Taiwan (in traditional Chinese). http://teach.eje.edu.tw /9CC/fields/2003/natureScience-source.php(accessed July 2003)

7.       Eames, A.School Library Journal 1995, 41 (8), 170.

8.       Schwelik, J. The Book Report1995,14 (2), 56.

9.       Balingit,J. American Reference Books Annual 1996, 91 (entry 221).

10.     Barbara, K. P. The Book Report1997,15 (4), 51.

11.     Eames, A.School Library Journal 1997, 43 (8), 182.

12.     Welborn,L. American Reference Books Annual 1997, 95 (entry 193).

Shui-Ping Yang

National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50058, Taiwan, yangsp@cc.ncue.edu.tw

S1430-4171(03)04713-9, 10.1333/s00897030713a

Encyclopedia of Catalysis. István T. Horváth, Editor-in-Chief. 6 volumes. Wiley-Interscience: Hoboken, NJ, 2003. ciii + 4772 pp, hardcover, 18.5  ´ 25.8 cm. \$1995.00. ISBN 0-471-24183-0.

Catalysis, the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a substance that is unchanged by the end of the reaction, plays a vital role not only in the chemical process industry, where it provides fuels and commodity and fine chemicals, but also in the life process itself (enzymes are, of course, catalytic proteins). More than 60% of all chemical products and 90% of chemical processes are based on the phenomenon. It is also critical in modern, cost- and energy-efficient environmental protection and in the production of numerous agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals.

Traditionally, the field has been classified into the three major areas of biological, homogeneous, and heterogeneous catalysis; however, as our knowledge of catalysts at the molecular level has increased, striking similarities have emerged, while the recognition of impressive fundamental differences has provided new opportunities for design and exploitation of catalysts. Catalysis has become a truly interdisciplinary field with resources, insights, and approaches resulting from an eclectic integration of its many constitutive and supporting disciplines. This modern interdisciplinary development is amply reflected in the entries in the encyclopedia under review.

Although numerous periodicals, review journals, monographs, and handbooks focus on specific aspects of catalysis, this multivolume encyclopedia is the first comprehensive reference work that deals with enzymatic, homogeneous, heterogeneous, asymmetric, and biomimetic catalysis in one unified compilation. It includes general principles spanning all types of catalytic phenomena, scope of catalytic reactions, synthesis and structural and functional characterization of catalysts, application of catalytic reactions, use of computational chemistry in catalysis, related reaction engineering, modeling of catalytic processes, related reaction engineering techniques, and description of catalytic processes in current commercial and laboratory applications.

This authoritative and up-to-date encyclopedia, printed on acid-free paper, is a truly international undertaking. The Editor-in-Chief, István T. Horváth of the Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary and a well-known expert on the subject, has been assisted by five Associate Editors, four from the United States and one from Germany. The encyclopedia’s International Advisory Board consists of 21 authorities (including 2001 Nobel chemistry laureate Ryoji Noyuri of Nagoya University) from academe, government, and research institutes or laboratories in 13 countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The 232 authors of the 151 signed articles are employed by leading universities, commercial firms, government laboratories, research institutes, and scientific academies in 26 countries (those listed above plus Argentina, Austria, Canada, India, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia).

Because the users of the encyclopedia are not expected to be specialists, the articles define basic terminology and lucidly explain any complex matters peculiar to the field of the entry. Whenever necessary, terminology is explained, and glossaries and lists of abbreviations and additional readings are provided.

The extensively cross-referenced entries include types of catalytic reactions, classified as biological, heterogeneous, homogeneous, and industrial, as well as specific types of molecules. They range in length from 4-1/2 pages (“Active Sites—Heterogeneous”) to 134-1/2 pages (“Catalyst Deactivation/Regeneration—Heterogeneous”) and contain detailed bibliographies of reference works (articles, book chapters and books, patents, and web sites), some as recent as 2001. The set consists of:

·  Volume 1, “Acid-Base Catalysis—Biological” to “Biphasic Catalysis—Industrial” (814 pp; ISBN 0-471-22972-2);

·  Volume 2, “Carbohydrases” to “Cytochrome P450/Models” (814 pp, ISBN 0-471-22978-4);

·  Volume 3, “Dehalogenation—Industrial” to “Hydroformylation” (808 pp, ISBN 0-471-22977-6);

·  Volume 4, “Hydrogen Generation by Catalysis” to “Metallocenes” (789 pp, ISBN 0-471-22976-8);

·  Volume 5, “Metathesis—Homogeneous” to “Radicals in Catalysis—Heterogeneous” (777 pp, ISBN 0-471-42552-4);

·  Volume 6, “Reforming—Heterogeneous” to “Zinc Enzymes and Models” (770 pp, ISBN 0-471-42553-2).

A preface and complete list of contributors with their institutional affiliations and article titles appears in the first volume, and a list of conversion factors, abbreviations, and unit symbols (16 pp) appears in all the volumes. Because the arrangement of the encyclopedia is alphabetical rather than topical, no prices are given for the individual volumes. The encyclopedia is replete with figures, tables, mathematical and chemical equations, reaction schemes, photographs, and graphs. There is no table of contents, but a detailed index (74 double-column pages) in the last volume facilitates location of material.

The development of this encyclopedia will not cease with the publication of the printed volumes but is a continuing effort. Institutional customers may license an Internet version of the work in full color for access on an annual basis. Pricing options depend on the type of institution, the user population, and the collection of Wiley-InterScience products that the customer licenses. The Web site (http://www.mrw. interscience.wiley.com/enccat) also includes help on browsing the encyclopedia, links to catalysis web sites of interest, sample articles, and a “What’s New” page that lists further articles to be added in the future. By the end of 2004 the number of additional online articles is expected to equal that of the articles in the printed version. I agree with Professor Horváth that “as a result, the Encyclopedia of Catalysis should become a living document that will provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge about all types of catalytic phenomena.”

The state-of-the-art encyclopedia will be of interest to scientists, engineers, and students concerned with learning the principles and scope of catalysis, researchers interested in applying catalysis outside their immediate areas of expertise, persons involved in basic and applied research and development, engineers, professors, and research managers, sales and production personnel, consultants, and patent attorneys. Libraries of corporations, research organizations, manufacturing and processing plants, and universities will also want to acquire it.

I heartily recommend the Encyclopedia of Catalysis as a definitive and essential first reference source for anyone seeking information on any aspect of catalysis.

George B. Kauffman

California State University, Fresno, georgek@csufresno.edu

S1430-4171(03)04714-8, 10.1333/s00897030714a